Manganese (Mn) - plasma
Manganese is a hard metal similar to iron, used in steel, batteries and ceramics. It is also widely used in glass making, the manufacture of strong alloys and as a colourant.
Daily requirements in man is around 3mg and it is widely distributed in plant and animal tissue. Current manganese supplements are probably slightly in excess of requirements.
Homeostasis is by faecal elimination; excess calcium and phosphorus decreases manganese absorption. Manganese is stored in tissues rich in mitochondria (liver, pancreas) and thyroid hormones increase mitochondrial uptake.
It is an enzyme co-factor for pyruvate carboxylase, PEP carboxylase, glutamine synthetase and superoxide dismutase. It is required for the action of vitamin B1 (thiamine) and for normal brain function (as an enzyme activator). Epilepsy has been associated with manganese deficiency. Itís also required for bone and cartilage formation and low levels are often associated with joint surface diseases, e.g. arthritis. Arteririosclerosis is higher in areas with low levels of manganese and chromium in the soil. Manganese is sometimes low in diabetics as it has an effect on gluconeogenesis. Hearing problems and dizziness are sometimes seen when manganese levels are low.
Outright manganese deficiency results in slow growth, debility and testicular atrophy.
An excess of manganese has been associated with Parkinsonís disease and hypertension. No specific chelating agent is available for the treatment of manganese toxicity (symptoms are hypersensitivity, flushing, food allergies etc.).
Plasma manganese is the preferred sample for assessment of nutritional status (reference range: 9.0 - 40.0 nmol/L). In cases of suspected toxicity, because manganese accumulates in red cells, whole blood levels are useful (up to 200nmol/L) or in urine up to 5.0 umol/mol creatinine is acceptable.
No mineral supplements containing manganese for 24 hours prior to testing.
Included in Profiles:
Plasma mineral profile and Biolab trace and toxic metal profile
manganese.pdf (Click to Download)
rep-plasma-minerals.pdf (Click to Download)
Navy Blue (EDTA)
Postal Samples Acceptable:
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