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Dietary Patterns and A1C in Japanese Men and Women (paper)

OBJECTIVE - Dietary patterns in Western populations have been linked to type 2 diabetes, but the role of diet in Japanese remains unclear. We investigated the association between major dietary patterns and glucose tolerance status as measured by A1C in Japanese adults.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The groups of subjects were comprised of 3,243 men and 4,667 women who participated in the baseline survey of an ongoing cohort study on lifestyle-related diseases in Fukuoka, Japan. Dietary patterns were derived by using principal component analysis of the consumption of 49 food items, ascertained by a food-frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate sex-specific odds ratios (ORs) of elevated A1C (5.5%), with adjustment for potential confounding variables.

RESULTS - The Westernized breakfast pattern characterized by frequent intake of bread but infrequent intake of rice was inversely related to A1C concentrations (P trend 0.02 in both men and women); the multivariate-adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quintiles were 0.60 (95% CI 0.43 - 0.84) and 0.64 (0.46 - 0.90) for men and women, respectively. The seafood dietary pattern was positively associated with A1C concentrations in men only (Ptrend 0.01). Neither the healthy nor high-fat dietary pattern was related to A1C.

CONCLUSIONS - A dietary pattern featuring frequent intake of white rice may deteriorate glucose metabolism in Japanese men and women, and the salty seafood dietary pattern may have a similar effect in men.

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 D-Lightful Vitamin D: Bone & Muscle Health and Prevention of Autoimmune and Chronic Diseases (Video 58 mins)

In this program, Michael Holick, PhD, MD, discusses vitamin D relating to bone and muscle health and the prevention of autoimmune and chronic diseases. Dr Holick if Professor of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics at Boston University School of Medicine.

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 Vitamin D and Diabetes - Can We Prevent it? (Video 48 mins)

In this program, Frank Garland, PhD, discusses vitamin D and the opportunity for prevention of diabetes. Dr Garland is the Technical Director of the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) in San Diego, California. NHRC is the primary Navy Military Operational Medicine Research Facility and the site of the Department of Defense Deployment Health Research Center. Dr. Garland also serves as the director of the NHRC Special Programs Office. In this capacity, he manages a large portfolio of Special Congressional Programs for the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery directed toward medical research projects within and outside the Department of Defense.

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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is a common condition associated with many physical problems, including increased risk of cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. Many nutritional factors are involved in the development and treatment of this condition. Every diabetic should be screened for nutritional deficiencies especially chromium, magnesium, potassium, vitamins B1, B3 and B12. Deficiency of specific nutrients can be associated with decreased insulin sensitivity; concomitantly, correction of deficiencies, especiallly of chromium and certain B vitamins, is associated with increased insulin sensitivity, reduced blood sugar and an increased likelihood of hypoglycaemia.

WARNING When recommending dietary change with nutritional supplementation to an insulin-dependent diabetic or a patient on oral hypoglycaemics, great care must be taken to avoid excessive, rapid in drop blood sugar with resultant risk of diabetic hypoglycaemic coma, since correcting marked deficiencies of nutrients essential for optimal insulin sensitivity can render the hypoglycaemic treatments much more effective.