Osteoporosis Profile


Indications:

Human bone mass normally decreases from its adult peak with advancing age. This is especially so in women after the menopause, since post-menopausal oestrogen deficiency triggers the activity of the osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bone resorption, thereby causing an acceleration of bone remodelling. Osteoporosis is an avoidable skeletal condition characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to an increased risk of fracture. While the lifetime risk of osteoporosis for a 50-year-old man it is one in five, for a 50-year-old woman it is estimated at one in two [1].

Prevention of osteoporosis can be:
1. Primary, which involves preventing bone loss from occurring,
2. Secondary in which the progression of bone loss is inhibited to avert the development of fractures, or
3. Tertiary in which patients with existing fractures are treated to prevent subsequent fracture [1].

Although osteoporosis is relatively common, the diagnosis is often not made until after a fracture has occurred, so there is a good case for osteoporosis screening. Nutritional status is of key importance and is currently a major health issue, since many osteoporosis sufferers are introduced to anti-resorptive treatment without adequate prior nutritional assessments - which must limit the value of such treatments.

Patient Instructions:

No mineral or vitamin containing nutritional supplements for 24 - 48 hours prior to testing.

Datasheet:

osteoporosis.pdf (Click to Download)

Sample Report:

rep-osteoporosis.pdf (Click to Download)

Sample Requirements:

1 x Gold (SST); 1 x navy blue (EDTA), 1 x green (heparin), 15ml of a second void early morning urine.

Postal Samples Acceptable:

Yes

References:

1. Grossman JM. Osteoporosis prevention. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2011;23:203-210.
2. van Daele PL, Seibel MJ, Burger H et al. Case-control analysis of bone resorption markers, disability, and hip fracture risk: the Rotterdam study. Brit Med J 1996; 312: 482-483.
3. Garnero P, Hausherr E, Chapuy MC et al. Markers of bone resorption predict hip fracture in elderly women: the EPIDOS prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 1996; 11: 1531-1538.
4. Garnero P, Sornay-Rendu E, Claustrat B et al. Biochemical markers of bone turnover, endogenous hormones and the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women: the OFELY study. J Bone Miner Res 2000; 15: 1526-1536.
5. Sornay-Rendu E, Munoz F, Garnero P et al. Identification of osteopenic women at high risk of fracture: the OFELY study. J Bone Miner Res 2005; 20: 1813-1819.
6. Rosalki SB, Ying Foo A. Incubation with neuraminidase and affinity electrophoresis with wheat lectin compared for separating and quantifying alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in plasma. Clin Chem 1985;31:1198-1200.
7. Behr W, Barnett J. Quantification of bone alkaline phosphatase in serum by precipitation with wheat germ lectin: a simplified method and its clinical plausibility. Clin Chem 1986;32:1960-1966.
8. Ross PD, Kress BC, Parson RE et al. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase and calcaneus bone density predict fractures: a prospective study. Osteoporos Int 2000; 11: 76-82.
9. Holick MF. Siris ES, Binkley N, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal North American women receiving osteoporosis therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:3215-3224.
10. Caire-Juvera G, Ritenbaugh C, Wactawski-Wende J et al. Vitamin A and retinol intakes and the risk of fractures among participants of the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:323-330.
11. Endres DB, Rude RK. Mineral and bone metabolism. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics 4th Ed. Elsevier-Saunder pubs, St. Louis Mis, 2006, pp 1891-1965.
12. Strause L., Saltman P, Smith K T et al. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr 1994;124:1060-1064.
13. Giannini S, Nobile M, Dalla Carbonare L, et al. Hypercalciuria is a common and important finding in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2003;149:209-213.
14. Nguyen TV, Eisman JA, Kelly PJ, et al. Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in elderly men. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144:255-263.
15. Ghazali S, Barratt TM. Urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium in children. Arch Dis Child. 1974;49:97-101.

For further details please contact the laboratory at: lab@xxxxbiolab.co.uk